Sartre, Jean-Paul

(1905-80)
   The leading philosopher of existentialism and in some ways the leading atheist of the twentieth century, Sartre did at least recognise that his atheism was just as much of a philosophical position as another's theism. In his earlier writings Sartre interacted with Husserl and Heidegger, and wrote on consciousness (which he thought demanded a tacit self-consciousness) and freedom (which he thought meant freedom not just from God but from independent moral values). These themes come together in his insistence that human consciousness, or being for itself (ˆetre-pour-soi ), must not become an object, or being in itself (ˆetre-en-soi ), as this would entail a loss of freedom. In his later writings Sartre tried to marry his existentialist insights with Marxism, with the result that he lost his earlier emphasis on freedom. Sartre developed these ideas in philosophical monographs such as his magnum opus, L'ˆetre et le n´eant (Being and Nothingness), in plays such as Huis Clos (No Exit), biographies such as those of Flaubert and Genet, his autobiography, and novels such as La Naus´ee (Nausea). Sartre was offered the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1964, but declined. He, together with his companion Simone de Beauvoir, exercised a great influence over intellectual culture in France and Europe more generally.
   Further reading: Cohen-Solal 1988; Howells 1992; Sartre 1948, 1957, 1958 and 1963

Christian Philosophy . . 2015.

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  • Sartre, Jean-Paul — born June 21, 1905, Paris, France died April 15, 1980, Paris French philosopher, novelist, and playwright, the foremost exponent of existentialism. He studied at the Sorbonne, where he met Simone de Beauvoir, who became his lifelong companion and …   Universalium

  • Sartre, Jean-Paul — (1905 1980)    philosopher, writer, critic    The leading exponent of existentialism, Jean Paul Sartre was born in Paris to a liberal Protestant bourgeois family and was raised by his mother and grandfather, a relative of albert schweitzer. Early …   France. A reference guide from Renaissance to the Present

  • Sartre, Jean-Paul — (1905–1980)    The prolific, erudite Jean Paul Sartre significantly influenced the spheres of 20th century philosophy, politics and literature. The Parisian began his intellectual life at the select École Normale Supérieure, and in 1929 he… …   Historical dictionary of Marxism

  • Sartre, Jean-Paul — (1905–80)    Philosopher.    Sartre was born in Paris. He was a nephew of Albert schweitzer. He was educated in Paris and Berlin and it was there that he discovered German philosophy, particularly the works of hegel, heidegger and Husserl. With… …   Who’s Who in Christianity

  • Sartre, Jean-Paul — ► (1905 80) Escritor francés. Popularizó en forma peculiar la doctrina existencialista, a través de novelas (La náusea, 1938; Los caminos de la libertad, 1945 49) y dramas, en los que demuestra una gran habilidad en el manejo de los recursos… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Sartre,Jean Paul — Sar·tre (särʹtrə, särt), Jean Paul. 1905 1980. French writer and philosopher. A leading existentialist, he wrote literary works, such as the autobiographical novel Nausea (1938) and the play No Exit (1944), and philosophical volumes that include… …   Universalium

  • Sartre, Jean-Paul — (1905–1980) French philosopher, novelist, and dominant French intellectual of his time. Sartre was born in Paris and educated at the École Normale Supérieure. From 1933 he studied in Germany with Husserl and Heidegger . His first novel, La Nausée …   Philosophy dictionary

  • Sartre, Jean-Paul — See Existence (Philosophy of) 2 …   History of philosophy

  • Sartre, Jean-Paul — (1905 80) A French existentialist writer and philosopher who attempted to develop a humanist critique of and philosophical foundation for Marxism . His most accessible work of interest to the social sciences is The Problem of Method (1957) but… …   Dictionary of sociology

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